Cognitive bias codex. Cognitive bias codex: 200 rules of everyday thinking

24 Cognitive Biases stuffing up your thinking

Cognitive bias codex

The tendency to be over-optimistic, underestimating greatly the probability of undesirable outcomes and overestimating favorable and pleasing outcomes see also , ,. The tendency for expectations to affect perception. Failure to Estimate So much about business relies on making projections about the future, and the biases in this category make it difficult to make accurate estimates. Stereotypical bias Memory distorted towards stereotypes e. Attributing more blame to a harm-doer as the outcome becomes more severe or as personal or situational to the victim increases. This infographic print is a powerful reference, reminder, and conversation-starter. This is because memories are representations, not exact copies.

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File:Cognitive Bias Codex

Cognitive bias codex

Expert Political Judgment: how good is it? Not having enough to go on, our brains come up with patterns, leading to such biases as , , , , , , and. The virus is believed to have spread through these removable drives. These biases can lead to us extrapolating information from the wrong sources, seeking to confirm existing beliefs, or failing to remember events the way they actually happened! Both effects can be present at the same time. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. The Egyptian state needed this kind of project a long time ago. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or , or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. The tendency for people to ascribe greater or lesser moral standing based on the outcome of an event.

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File:Cognitive Bias Codex

Cognitive bias codex

The predisposition to view the past favorably and future negatively. With every piece of new information, we need to do our best to assess our ability to affect the situation, apply it to decisions, simulate the future to predict what might happen next, and otherwise act on our new insight. This section of Propaganda Critic briefly introduces a few of these cognitive biases, highlighting those which are particularly useful in the context of propaganda analysis. When the contents of the reactor are heated to about 400 to 500 ºC, nuclear reactions start. Thinking and deciding 3rd ed. This brings us to misconception number two: rational does not mean purely self-interested.

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Cognitive Biases

Cognitive bias codex

But in the first decade of the present century, access to supplies has emerged as the overriding issue. The describes how we take more risks when we feel more safe. When people view self-generated preferences as instead being caused by insightful, effective and benevolent agents. However, honestly, the Wikipedia page is a bit of a tangled mess. A good example of this: a study showed that when making food choices for the coming week, 74% of participants chose fruit, whereas when the food choice was for the current day, 70% chose chocolate.

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List of cognitive biases

Cognitive bias codex

The list includes biases that fall into categories such as financial, social, short term-ism, and failure to estimate: Financial biases These are imprecise mental shortcuts we make with numbers, such as hyperbolic discounting — the mistake of preferring a smaller, sooner payoff instead of a larger, later reward. But convincing clinical studies in humans have used about 1 gm of resveratrol per day, roughly equal to the amount found in 667 bottles of red wine. Some cognitive biases presumably served our hunter-gatherer ancestors well. Rent in American cities has been marching upward for nearly a decade, and the promise of more space and entry into the home ownership market may lure more of this generational cohort to the suburbs. A large portion of the flavanols can also be removed during processing. An exception to the fundamental attribution error, when people view others as having situational extrinsic motivations and dispositional intrinsic motivations for oneself The tendency for people to overestimate the degree to which others agree with them. The tendency for people to want to believe that the world is fundamentally just, causing them to rationalize an otherwise inexplicable injustice as deserved by the victim s.

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List of cognitive biases

Cognitive bias codex

The two variants of this fallacy are the and the. The tendency to under-expect variation in small samples. When better-informed people find it extremely difficult to think about problems from the perspective of lesser-informed people. For instance, people are better able to recall memories of statements that they have generated than similar statements generated by others. For example, subjects in one experiment perceived the probability of a woman being both a bank teller and a feminist as more likely than the probability of her being a bank teller.

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